Rudolf Steiner, Second Goetheanum, (1928)
Steiner’s Second Goetheanum is the largest building in the German expressionist architectural movement to be constructed. The revolutionary use of poured concrete greatly influenced later modernist architects, most notably, Le Corbusier.
Steiner’s architecture is characterized by a liberation from traditional architectural constraints, especially through the departure from the right-angle as a basis for the building plan. For the first Goetheanum he achieved this in wood by employing boat builders to construct its rounded forms; for the second Goetheanum he used concrete to achieve sculptural shapes on a grand architectural scale. In both buildings, Steiner sought to create forms that were spiritually expressive and claimed that he derived sculptural forms from the spiritual world, rather than by imitating the forms of the physical world or through abstract architectural theorizing.