Adophe Appia, Set Designer, 1862-1928
Appia’s intent was not to create pictorial realism, but to create a believable mood for the scene. For instance, trees are symbolic, not literal.
For Appia, the four basic scenic elements include: Painted Scenery (Vertical); Spatial Arrangement (Floor); the Actor; the Light
Inclusion of the Actor as a scenic element creates a completely new focus with resonance in modenism.
Appia redefined the practice of lighting; eliminated footlights; created novel lighting positions. He believed that light can be structural. Appia distinguished between a diffuse light that allows visible scenery, and a concentrated light that models form.
Ultimately, Appia’s drawings have been more influential than his actual productions.